All four of her turrets are trained to starboard and elevated for long-range fire. Vittorio Veneto was repaired by August 1941 and was joined by Littorio. The two twin turrets were mounted in a superfiring position over the fore and aft triple turrets. This rebuild entailed leaving only 40 percent of the original ship, making this the most extensive of the battleship upgrade projects carried out by any navy between the wars. The bridge was compact; on its top was the large rotating main battery director.
The original secondary armament comprised 18 single 4. In September—October 1942, two each were embarked in Vittorio Veneto and Littorio. This mount could not train or elevate fast enough to track and engage high-speed targets. Service Modifications None of the ships of the class received extensive modifications during the war. The extra height created by placing the turret on a slightly higher elevation and lowering the quarterdeck one Vittorio Veneto shown just after completion in April 1940. Despite these meager numbers, the results were devastating.
Should an armistice not be reached, the fleet was ready to conduct a final attack on Allied landings on the Italian mainland. The British convoy was spotted by Italian aircraft and the Italian distant covering force was sent to engage it. This system added a hollow curved bulkhead in front of the 25mm torpedo bulkhead of between 10 and 50mm. She was finally broken up in place between 1950 and 1952. However, as would be the case throughout the war, the commander of the Italian battle fleet was ordered to accept an engagement only under conditions where the Italians held a clear superiority.
Stille Commander, United States Navy, retired is the author of numerous other books focusing on naval history in the Pacific. Doria, Duilio, and Cesare were also operational, giving the Italians five battleships. Ships of the World 9 The 4. Deck surfaces remained dark gray, but wooden decks were now painted dark gray as well. Characteristics of Italian Battleship Antiaircraft Guns Type Classes Maximum elevation degrees Maximum range yards Rate of fire per minute Muzzle velocity feet per second Shell weight pounds 3.
They also had a high elevation and were provided with antiaircraft shells for barrages against attacking aircraft. Behind them are several heavy cruisers. Obviously this doctrine hinged on accuracy at long range. Both profiles show the overall layout of the Cavour class with its simplified bridge structure, the four 12. The design was dominated by the three triple 15-inch turrets, two placed forward and one aft. Even in a short war, this was to be done as soon as possible, but only close to Italian bases in the central Mediterranean.
In the summer of 1942 Vittorio Veneto returned to service and the Roma began trials in June. The incomplete ship was moved from Genoa to Brindisi, then to Venice and ended up in Trieste by September 1943. The thinking behind this major investment was that it was cheaper than building entirely new ships. Thus, the Regia Marina avoided the fate of the other Axis navies that were virtually annihilated during the war. Each ship had its own scheme and each scheme included one of three basic designs — lobed, straight-edged, and splotch patterns. From January 1943 she was assigned as a training ship at Pola until the Italian surrender in September when she escaped to Malta. My sincere thanks to for this review sample! Armament The principal armament of the Vittorio Veneto class was the Italian-designed 15-inch gun, the first gun that size to be fitted on an Italian battleship.
On August 23, Vittorio Veneto, and Littorio, four cruisers and 19 destroyers sortied to intercept a British force from Gibraltar on a mining mission off Livorno. Naval History and Heritage Command and these were the oldest ships in the battle fleet, Cavour and Cesare. During the war, the only modifications to Cesare were two additional 20mm and 37mm twin mounts in 1941. The ship later capsized and broke in two with heavy loss of life. Italian light cruisers also possessed an interesting design history and were involved in every major fleet engagement in the Mediterranean, as well as several smaller encounters with units of the British Royal Navy.
On top of this, the Italian admirals had to function under a system where effective naval—air cooperation was all but impossible. Foremost was maintaining communications with Libya in North Africa and the Balkans. When the two lead ships ran trials in 1939, both developed greater than their design power and both reached over 31 knots with a displacement of over 41,000 tons. Her basic design set the tone for the next two classes of Italian battleships. As a signatory to the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, the Regia Marina immediately attempted to reinforce its treaty-limited battleship force by building seven large 10,000-ton heavy cruisers.
This required the movement of regular convoys to those areas. The base was heavily defended by antiaircraft guns, but no torpedo nets were in place and without radar the Italians had no warning of the approaching attackers. Vittorio Veneto was sent to Genoa for repairs and subsequently returned to La Spezia. Duilio and Doria proceeded to Malta when Italy surrendered and were returned to Italian control in June 1944. But these two minor issues do not detract from the rest of the information, which is accurate. With this Italian designers provided a main armor belt 250mm deep with a width of just over nine feet. Littorio was hit by a single bomb on the starboard side abaft the forward turret.