Dimbleby London: Gerald Duckworth, 1969 : 5. This book considers these imperial 'exchanges' and charts some contemporary legacies of those inequitable imports and exports, transportations and transmutations. Tiffin's research and teaching interests include the history of colonial and post-colonial settler societies, literatures in English, Caribbean studies, literary theory, and more recently, the literary and cultural representation of animals. ¿ In the Caribbean, plantation slavery pushed back the ¿jungle¿ itself an imported word and erased the indigenous occupants ¿ one example of the righteous, biblically justified cultivation of the wilderness. While the Society possessed some information about what their envoys might expect to encounter in the islands,4 individual missionaries seem to have been utterly confounded by the cultural difference they met with and the extreme isolation they experienced. For the most part, Grey Owl enlists standard autobiographical techniques and refers to himself using the first person, thus narrowing the distance between author and narrator.
Dogs of War When Sir Julius Chan regained Prime Ministership of P N G in August 1994, he promised to end the secessionist war on Bougainville. The massive fall was broken by Shiva himself, who contained the force of the mighty river in his matted locks and allowed it to flow benevolently over the earth. Published by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 27 January 1998. Slowly Down the Ganges, 193. In Australia, artistic depictions of landscape, often driven by romantic and 'gothic' aesthetics, encoded contradictory settler mindsets, and literary representations of colonial Kenya mask the erasure of ecosystems. Environmental impacts were reinforced, in patterns of unequal 'exchange', by the transport of animals, plants and peoples throughout the European empires, instigating widespread ecosystem change under unequal power regimes a harbinger of today's 'globalization'.
Geoffrey Bolton declares that, given the fact that by 1860 the country was carrying twenty million head of sheep and four million of cattle, and by 1890 a hundred million sheep and eight million cattle, None of the exotic invaders that ran wild across the country, not even the rabbit, brought about such profound transformation of the Australian environment as beef cattle and merino sheep. Chapters examine colonial attitudes towards poisonous animals and the history of colonial medicine, evangelisaton in Africa and Oceania, colonial recreation in the tropics and the tragedy of the slave trade. Abstract: Considers the imperial 'exchanges' and charts some contemporary legacies of the inequitable imports and exports, transportations and transmutations. But in Australia, North America, New Zealand and South Africa, genuine curiosity about and respect for indigenous cultures, philosophies and religions was rare. Hope therefore lies in a poetry through which the world so invades the spirit of man that he becomes almost speechless, and later reinvents language.
Edited by Helen Tiffin Reviewed by Yvette Hutchison University of Warwick. In an hour, it is perfectly possible to present fifty or sixty works of art — even a few seconds can make a point. It is the anodyne version of nature which interests me most here, since its perceived capacity to re-energize the imperial adventurer sapped by the demands of a rapidly industrializing world also speaks to a sense of Western spiritual malaise to which ecotourism more subtly offers a corrective. Missionaries attempted to establish industries including sugar mills, cotton mills, and coconut oil mills in order to provide productive, Christian labour for their potential native converts. A profound sense of anxiety, insecurity and desperation haunts this work. I want to consider why there is here an almost deliberate rejection of a convention which is such a fundamental feature of nineteenth-century male exploration and travel narrative. The image of the cultivated garden returning to wilderness functions as a metaphor in his travelogue for the decline of British interest and the disintegration of British power and influence in the Caribbean.
Stuermann, Roots in the Soil: An Introduction to Philosophy of Agriculture New York: Philosophical Library, 1964 : ix. Fauna, Flora, Food and Medicine, vol. The spiritual legacy of Hinduism is a vital force, one that has negotiated many social and political movements and exigencies to shape contemporary Indian sensibilities. By the midnineteenth century some of the settler colonies of the British Empire, notably Canada and Australia, had already established whole economic systems on the basis of agricultural and pastoral imports. Taking agriculture seriously means crossing disciplinary boundaries and getting down in the dirt. English in the West Indies. Grenfell Price, The Western Invasions of the Pacific and its Continents Oxford: Clarendon, 1963 : 176.
It is thus ironic that the Ganga Action Plan focused on sewage waste rather than industrial wastes — a politically cautious approach which did not offend powerful interests. A quite different response to and politics of landscape depiction is in operation in these earlier writings. William Cronon New York: W. Ecotourism has been variously defined and is at best a slippery term whose modishness has clearly led to a fair amount of indiscriminate application, particularly in some sectors of the tourist industry where ecotourism has come to mean any activity that can be marketed as nature-based. More significantly, ecology has been influenced by the broader trend, evident in other scientific developments such as chaos theory not to mention the philosophical move towards post-structuralism towards emphasizing the heterogeneity and disorder that underlie all apparently homogeneous systems. The broad field of postcolonial studies has delivered useful and sophisticated accounts of the tensions and contradictions surrounding representations of nature in colonial contexts as, variously, a rich resource to be exploited for the benefit of distant capital interests, a threat to the civilizing march of Peter S.
So it is also with agricultural systems. The Unremarkable Wordsworth London: Methuen, 1987. To drink the water, having bathed in it, and to carry it away in bottles for those who have not had the good fortune to make the pilgrimage to it is meritorious. The Monterey pine Pinus radiata is an endemic species of the California coast with little local economic value; however, it has been introduced to New Zealand and other countries where it is now the basis for much of the forest industry. But this very absence of scenic beauty has saved it from the fate of its neighbours. Simmons, Changing the Face of the Earth: Culture, Environment, History Oxford: Blackwell, 1989 : 123. Reynolds, The Law of the Land, 4.
While the gap between what ecotourism tends to promise and what it characteristically delivers is evident, even to an armchair analyst, it is not my intention here to examine the political, economic, or social efficacy of this form of travel. I want to turn the discussion, at this point, to the representation of the impact of black West Indians on the Caribbean landscape in the texts under consideration. This rhetoric leaves out the problematical presence of the indigene, despite the fact that Aborigines were to prove crucial as a labour force in the sheep and cattle industries, a centrality that is figured repeatedly in fiction and memoir but was until the 1980s ignored by critics and historians. However there are many examples of rare or endemic species which have had very great economic importance. Most of the inhabitants will probably have made some sort of dyke for the immediate preservation of their own dwellings; but as those dykes are not cut with any common purpose, they become little more than overflowing ponds, among which the negro children crawl and scrape in the mud; and are either drowned or escape drowning, as Providence may direct. Chapters on the early twentieth century in Canada, Kenya, and Queensland indicate increased awareness of the value of species-preservation, conservation, and disease control.
We could more easily have imagined ourselves in an English part, than in a heathen village. Nevertheless, pre-Columbian planting and use of the species are established for the western and central Pacific islands; Jonathan D. Culture, Politics and the Non-Human Oxford: Blackwell, 1995. Through February and March of 1997, numerous articles in the Australian tried to make sense of the troubling relationship between soldiering and commerce. This book considers these imperial 'exchanges' and charts some contemporary legacies of those inequitable imports and exports, transportations and transmutations. An obscure insect in one country may be found to be the ideal biological control for an important agricultural pest somewhere else. It is given up to the growth of yams, cocoas, and plantains.
Polluted River or Goddess and Saviour? This provided me with a moment of reflection on the South African-Mali collaboration between Handspring Puppet Company and Sogolon Puppet Company in the production of Tall Horse 2005 , the story of a giraffe given as a bribe from Mehmet Ali, the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, to dissuade the French from involving themselves in the Greek War of Independence. Second, there are technoscapes, the machinery and plant flows produced by multinational and national corporations and government agencies. Marquesan sandalwood supplies were stripped in only 7 years 1814—21. Tourists with Typewriters: Critical Reflections on Contemporary Travel Writing Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1998. Nineteenth-century missionaries carved out spaces on these beaches in particular ways — very different, for example, from the ways that European beachcombers did — and in so doing they attempted to institute particular kinds of social relations. The Black War had just ended, and the then Protector of Aborigines, George Augustus Robinson, had rounded up the two-hundred-odd remaining Indigenous people for confinement on Flinders Island in Bass Strait, where most of them rapidly died of despondency. Reynolds interrogates the commonly held assumption that the Aborigines were held not to be in possession of land because they did not cultivate it, pointing out that the idea of cultivation being necessary to prove possession was not merely a cultural fiction, but a legal one as well.