But a prophylactic of this kind has hitherto been rejected as being superfluous by the exponents of school goitre prophy- lactic in south Germany, on the grounds that, except for sporadic cases, goitre in Germany is not accompanied by a general distribution of cretinism as in Switzerland. But the schema is imperfect precisely in the point that is of essential importance here. The T complex is first of all merely a symptom of a disease or passing indisposition due to endogenous or exogenous dis- turbing factors. The scenic silhouettes, which have been used above, are best used again, because of the strong impression they make on the involuntary attention. This is present in the majority of cases and demands an intense sense impression, which the silhouettes are able to give. Since the hypothyroidic condition is accom- panied by more or less serious mental retardation, it was expected that if such cases existed at all, they would most likely be found among pupils of Hilfsschulen schools for mentally deficient children.
But we cannot expect to find these differentiating processes in the development of every individual. Jaensch in the Hephata asylum near Treysa, Cassel, in conjunction with the medical director, Dr Wittneben. The eyes thus also seem to betray that dissociation of functions and organic systems within the mental sphere, just as the motor expressions, which often remind one of an automaton or a machine. This particularly applies to geometrical construction or, in general, esprit de geometric, which is introduced by the mind as a means to stable organization. This is found to be the case.
Storring, who hoped to gain insight into normal psychology from a study of psychopathological pheno- mena. Miiller would almost appear to follow no laws and to be chaotic, can to a large extent be explained as follows : according to the inner attitude and the external experimental conditions, images can either be closer to, or further removed from the eidetic sphere. Instead of the forms having a normal hairpin shape, they were much more irregular, drawn apart laterally, and could only be compared to a vine tendril or a knocker. In fact the elucidation of their relation to normal types has led to a deeper understanding of them. This prophylactic, which could be achieved by adding small quantities of iodine to the common salt sold to the populace, as in Switzerland, would have to start before birth. To start from rudimentary and doubtful cases, instead of from manifest ones, in order to arrive at a conception of the whole complex of phenomena, would be like the procedure of a historian who tries to reconstruct some event from very imperfect and meagre sources, when complete and reliable ones are at his disposal.
The degenerative variants of the capillaries found in such cases are probably only partially due to anharmonic differentiation during development. These questions, however, go far beyond the fundamental discussions from the point of view of educational practice that ought to be given ; they must therefore be reserved for a later publication. The doctrines and institutions of educational practice have always been dependent on current philosophies. We have been perfectly conscious that there has been a gap here, as Allport pointed out, and we had particularly emphasized this in our monograph. In that case they can only be characterized by taking various functional aspects into account, as in the case of normal types.
The idea obtained at the beginning of the experiment, that the three threads lie in one plane, influences the subsequent perception so strongly, that the change is not noticed at all. Now the investigations that are described in this book are psychological ones, and no standpoint has been taken up with regard to the question of values other than that which usually leads to psychology. Zillig in her first re -examination of the eidetic investigations in Wurzburg Fortschritte d. The point is that it expressed a tendency, and it is that that we are here seeking to express in an extreme form. In the ear, however, conditions are quite different.
The general validity of eidetic investigations is proved in par- ticular by the fact that the eidetic faculty is extremely common in children that are being educated according to the principles of the Arbeitsschule. In the case of this hypothyroidic cretin the conditions were very different from the normal. The general significance lies in the fact that Goethe has already experienced, in a purer and clearer form, what all or most of us feel in a con- fused way under the same circumstances in life. It will certainly always stand to the credit of our leading officials that they correctly pointed out a weak aspect of the older educational system. It is this aspect which is of particular interest to the teacher. In the epoch that has just passed, medicine was predominantly orientated towards anatomy and its greatest achievement was the development of surgery.
We pre- sumably find even on these elementary levels of mental life similar conditions to those postulated by my neo-philological colleagues, Deutschbein and Wechssler, for the higher levels : that the German stands between the Anglo-American and the Romance race in his subjective behaviour. All this, again, justifies the symbolic representation we gave of eidetic images. For these, the best picture is one rich in detail, which keeps attention and interest alive. It is the case of ' memory after-images ' Vorstellungsnachbilder , which only occur in children who have the eidetic faculty very strongly developed. Here we pay special attention to those whose after-images are not in the complementary, but in the original colour, as this points to a relatively high degree of eidetic faculty. Miiller, Darstellung und Erkldrung der verschiedenen Typen der Farbenblindheit, Gottingen, 1924.
Although our investigations are carried out chiefly on strongly pronounced cases, which, after all, only form the smaller percentage, they nevertheless have a general validity. Various stages of this phase of development can be demonstrated in children. Even where such changes can be carried out to any extent, they are bound in a striking manner to the colour material that has been given through fixation. Kries, for having emphasized, at a time when such advice was generally dis- regarded, the great importance of insight into the logical and methodological aspect for any real advance in science. The difficulty in the way is the same as that which long prevented a proper understanding of eidetics, and even to-day prevents it in some cases : the lack of appreciation of the importance of the typological method. Often, too, the colours of the E. It 2 would seem that my protest against this conception has been oflittle avail; and the added explanations, which sharply pinpointed at least some chief points of difference, either have not been understood or have been heedlessly pushed aside.