After discussing and criticizing some influential stress theories, the framework presented by Burzio 1994 is modified. Finally, a cluster analysis is described that classifies compounds on the basis of their phonetic features and which is capable of sepa-rating different stress categories. These findings challenge standard assumptions in morphological theory, lexical phonology and models of speech production. The book is not written in the perspective of a particular theoretical framework and draws on insights from various research traditions, reflecting important methodological and theoretical developments in the field. Based on data obtained from Spanish dictionaries and databases of the past thousand years, it documents the evolution of the major compounding patterns of the language. Listener proficiency to identify these patterns is investigated, and the acoustic properties that distinguish the patterns are identified.
Brand new book, sourced directly from publisher. It is found that either the first or the second ele-ment of the stimuli is perceived as more prominent, and that the distinction can be considered categorical. Libyan fighters , collected from his chosen corpus, the Boston University Radio Speech Corpus. The book further analyzes the semantic and structural factors influencing the distribution of the prominence patterns, and addresses the extent of within- and across-speaker variability in English compound stress assignment. This claim is based on perception experiments in which loudness was varied in a naive way: All parts of the spectrum were amplified uniformly, i. Possible drawbacks are, first, that the collection of examples is necessarily limited to what occurs in the corpus, something K is well aware of, and to what the researcher recognizes as compounds; and second, that the examples are subject to all kinds of contextual, syntactic, and pragmatic influences, such as newness of the information and sentential position, which are mentioned e. The test utterances were three minimal-pair noun phrases of two constituents, excised from conversational readings.
The analysis is based on more than 600 tokens extracted from conversational speech Buckeye Corpus, Pitt et al. These were analyzed acoustically, and submitted to the listeners for semantic identification. It is the first study of compound stress variability in English to show that measures of informativeness the morphological family sizes of the constituents and the constituents' degree of semantic specificity are indeed highly predictive of prominence placement. The largest part of this work is a highly detailed, step-by-step description of the methods and procedures K followed to investigate the acoustic and other features of English compound nouns e. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc. The book's didactic aim is to enable students with little or no prior linguistic knowledge to do their own practical analyses of complex words. After that, significant acoustic correlates of prominence are established.
Second, there are significant differences in duration between some of the morphemes. In contrast, the stress patterns of unaccented words cannot be successfully detected on the basis of the acoustic parameters. K considers three main approaches to account for compound prominence patterns: structural differences, semantic properties, and analogical effects. Dispatch time is 4-5 working days from our warehouse. At a theoretical level, these effects mean that the durational properties of the cross-boundary constituents are indicative of the hierarchical structure and of the strength of the internal boundary of triconstituent compounds. In this case what is usually labeled the primary stress syllable becomes the target of a nuclear accent. This paper tests the prediction of the Embedded Reduction Hypothesis with triconstituent compounds.
This volume addresses several claims about the two prominence patterns found in English nominal compounds in a rigorously empirical way. The distinctive accentual pattern weakens or is completely neutralized when the test items convey old information. C 1997 Acoustical Society of America. While it has long been noted that the first element of most, but not of all English nominal compounds is perceptually most prominent e. Hence, morphological structure is reflected in the speech signal. This study investigates the acoustic correlates of the distinction between primary and secondary stress in English in accented and unaccented morphologically complex words that are either left-prominent or right-prominent e. Please click button to get compound stress in english book now.
This entry was posted in Uncategorized on by. © Carlos Gussenhoven 2004 and Cambridge University Press, 2010. Until now, however, large-scale empirical evidence for this idea has been lacking. When an item is excised from the context, the perception of the intended category depends heavily on the communicative importance it had in the discourse. While the papers confirm the important role of the native language, they also shed light on the sometimes subtle and unexpected ways in which this variable interacts with universal markedness relationships to determine the formation of phonetic categories and their use in perception and production.
It is also based on a different degree of internal cohesion, stronger in compounds and weaker in non-compounds. Recent research has shown that homophonous lexemes show systematic phonetic differences e. It is a textbook directed towards university students of English at all levels. The results demonstrate how gradient acoustic measurements and discrete phonological contrasts can be mapped onto each other. Nevertheless, for anyone interested in learning about some hands-on approaches to laboratory phonetics and phonology methodology, this book could serve as a useful reference. There have been claims in the literature that the variability of compound stress assignment in English can be explained with reference to the informativeness of the constituents e. The effects are, however, much weaker for unaccented words.
The sentences are divided in a test and a training set, to test and train neural networks with different topologies and different input features. Using a corpus of spoken language, the current volume presents the first thorough and detailed investigation of these areas, while also introducing several methodological and statistical innovations to the field. About this Item: De Gruyter, 2011. Author by : Barbara O. Contents: Frontmatter -- Contents -- Acknowledgements -- 1 Introduction -- 2 Compounds, stress and prominence: concepts and issues -- 3 The corpus -- 4 Perception of compound prominence patterns -- 5 Acoustic correlates of compound prominence -- 6 Classification and prediction of compound prominence patterns -- 7 What determines compound prominence patterns? While English has been the most frequent target language involved, the learners' L1s have varied greatly. This means that information structure, through its effects on accentuation, becomes the determining factor in the perception of the distinction. The analysis of the durational properties of almost 500 compound tokens shows that there is a lengthening effect on the non-embedded constituent, and a shortening effect on the adjacent embedded constituent.