Later, by commerce and conquest, Tenochtitlán came to rule an empire of 400 to 500 small states, by 1519 some 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 people spread over 80,000 square miles 207,200 square km. These ethnohistoric sources, linked to modern archaeological inquiries and studies of ethnologists, linguists, historians, and art historians, portray the formation and flourishing of a complex imperial state. Scroll up and download this book now! Stunning images help this thoroughly researched, well-written volume bring Aztec history and culture vividly to life for readers. The most handsome and strongest of the gods, , was supposed to sacrifice himself but when it came time to self-immolate, he could not jump into the fire. It seems that there was some freedom to choose a type of education, and perhaps some children were promoted who showed promise in a specific field. The Aztecs considered him to be the god of rain, earthly fertility and water.
Linguistically speaking, they were allied to the North American Shoshonis and to the Michoacan Tarascans. Aztec warriors wore padded cotton armour, carried a wooden or reed shield covered in hide, and wielded weapons such as a super sharp obsidian sword-club macuahuitl , a spear or dart thrower atlatl , and bow and arrows. In order to answer them, a little journey through the history has to be done. As such, by the time of the Aztec Empire, maize had a long history of use in farming practices in Mexico. The warriors were charged with the mission to provide the sun with sacrificial victims. She found a ball filled with feathers and placed it in her waistband, becoming pregnant with.
Thanks to instability within the Aztec empire, Cortes was able to form alliances with other native peoples, notably the Tlascalans, who were then at war with Montezuma. The are one of the few remaining signs of the Aztecs and their grandeur signifies how important religion was in this ancient society. Dominating the city was the huge Sacred Precinct with its temples and monumental ball court. Translations of a selection of indigenous accounts of the conquest. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Many of the temples displayed racks of human skulls from their victims.
The basis of Aztec success in creating a great state and ultimately an empire was their remarkable system of , which featured intensive cultivation of all available land, as well as elaborate systems of and reclamation of. First the nobility or pilli, then the common people or macehualli. While historians and linguists have identified several different varieties of Nahuatl, it is best known as the language of the Aztecs from their rise to prominence in the 14th century until they were. Organized thematically, the handbook covers all aspects of life in the Aztec world: Mesoamerican civilizations and Aztec archeology; evolution of Aztec civilization; geography of the Aztec world; society and government; religion, cosmology, and mythology; funerary beliefs and customs; Aztec art; Aztec architecture; Nahuatl literature; the calendar, astronomy, and mathematics; economy, industry, and trade; daily life; the Aztec after conquest and today. Was it only a religious custom? In this way women had a lot of power in society, though it was behind the scenes.
A campaign of territorial expansion began where the spoils of war - usually in the form of tributes from the conquered - were shared between these three great cities. This vision fulfilled a prophecy telling them that they should found their new home on that spot. Because the Aztec adopted and combined several traditions with their own earlier traditions, they had several. Elite warriors also wore spectacular feathered and animal skin costumes and headdresses to signify their rank. Ayer, 1911 This article was most recently revised and updated by , Managing Editor.
The was the one common to much of Mesoamerica, and it a solar year of 365 days and a sacred year of 260 days; the two yearly cycles running in parallel produced a larger cycle of 52 years. As such, since most domesticated animals originate from Eurasia, the Aztec diet was primarily based upon vegetables and fruits. The movement of planets and stars were carefully observed albeit not as accurately, though, as the had done and they provided the motive for the specific timing of many religious rites and agricultural practices. There were ways for a slave to gain freedom, such as purchasing it. Some time in the dim past the most accurate estimates place it anywhere from fifteen to twenty-five thousand years ago men of the Mongoloid race, in search of food, made their way across the frozen Bering Strait from Asia to the North American continent. Their chroniclers told them that after their long journey from Aztlán, they found themselves to be outcasts, until they found the sign sent to them by their god Huitzilopochtli, and began to build their city. Other examples of social classification include the pochteca, who are specialized merchants and who also communicated vital information across the empire and beyond its borders.
Hundreds, even thousands of years of tradition influenced the way people lived in the society. In the course of only few centuries they managed to establish an immense empire, which is known as the Aztec empire today. Feathers of brilliant colored tropical birds were used. Not only the political and religious capital, Tenochtitlán was also a huge trading centre with goods flowing in and out such as , greenstone, turquoise, cotton, cacao beans, tobacco, , tools, weapons, foodstuffs tortillas, chile sauces, maize, beans, and even insects, for example and slaves. The two principal gods worshipped were Huitzilopochtli the war and sun god and the rain god and both had a on top of the Templo Mayor pyramid at the heart of Tenochtitlan.
Seeing the costumes and emotion from the dancers helps me better understand why the Aztecs brought about these customs and how important they were in their daily lives. By the fifteenth century, Tenochtitlan had become the center of Aztec growth, conquest, and expansion. Instead, the smallest and humblest of the gods, who was also covered in boils, sacrificed himself first and jumped into the flames. This alliance was formed in order to defeat their enemy tribe from Azcapotzalco. Spanish friars, soldiers, and historians and scholars of Indian or mixed descent left invaluable records of all aspects of life. The Aztec Image of Self and Society. The Aztecs built their city of on that site, building a great , which today is in the center of.
The Aztec language, Nahuatl, was the dominant language in central Mexico by the mid-1350s. They and their ancestors have given many words and phrases not only to modern Spanish but to English as well. He also killed his half-sister by tearing out her heart using a a blue snake and throwing her body down the mountain. Why Tenochtitlan has been destroyed? We are a high-tech, vocabulary enhanced, non-fiction, reading comprehension program for ages 10-16. The rituals were supervised by professional priests.